Biological other immune cell membrane molecules

Other immune cell membrane molecules There are many types of immune cell membrane molecules, and the classification methods have different perspectives. As mentioned earlier, CD antigens mainly use monoclonal antibodies and other technologies. The classification of cell membrane molecules that perform various functions is almost all-encompassing. In CD, actually include some Ig superfamily members, most of the adhesin superfamily members and all selectin members in the adhesion molecules. In addition, from the perspective of functional classification, cell membrane molecules also include immunocompetent cell antigen recognition receptors, major histocompatibility antigens, cytokine receptors, differentiation antigens of T and B lymphocytes, which will be described in this book Relevant chapters are elaborated separately. This section mainly introduces mitogens and their corresponding binding molecules on lymphocytes and various IgFe receptors.

1. Mitotropin receptor

Mitogen (mitogen) comes from plant protein or bacterial products, it can be combined with a variety of cell membrane carbohydrates and oligosaccharide-based molecules, the latter is to promote mitogen receptors, after binding can promote cell activation and induce cell division. Since the cell membrane contains different glycosyl groups, it can be considered as a polyclonal activator, which is different from the antigen-specific clonal activation.

Both T and B cells have mitogen receptors on their surface, which can non-specifically stimulate the transformation of resting lymphocytes into mother cells in vitro. The DNA synthesis of the transformed cells increases, and the morphological changes such as increased cell volume, increased cytoplasm, basophilism, and mitosis occur. This transformation process is very important for studying changes in lymphocyte function and biochemical changes in the early activation process of lymphocytes. This lymphocyte transformation process can be incorporated with 3H-TdR to detect changes in DNA synthesis or cell transformation by light, and is often used for T cell function testing. American Pokeweed (PWM) can induce T and B cell transformation, while bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can cause B cell transformation (Zhen 6-8).

Table 6-8 Common mitogens

Name Source Molecular Weight (kD) Sugar-specific properties and applications Concanavalin A (ConA) Concanavalin 102 α-D-mannosyl-

α-D-glucose T-cell mitogen, isolated cell membrane glycoprotein Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) Yundou 120 N-actyl-D-galactosamine T-cell mitogens Pokeweed mitogen (PNA) Pokemon 32 β-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine B cell, T cell mitogenic soy lectin (SBA) peanut 110 D-galactosyl- (β1-3) -N-acetyl-D-galactosamine isolated thymus cell subpopulation (cortex Immature thymocytes and PNA agglomerate into PNA + cells) Soybean lectin (SBA) Soybean 120 N-acetyl-D-galactosamine

D-galactose agglutinates immune active B cells and purifies human bone marrow for bone marrow transplantation

2. Ig Fe receptor

Ig is divided into five categories: IgM, IgD, IgA, IgD and IgE. The different functions of various types of Ig are mainly related to their structure. Many cells in the body have different types of IgFe receptors. Through the combination of Fe receptors and IgFe, they participate in Ig-mediated physiological functions or pathological damage. The Fe receptors that have been clearly identified are FeγR, FcαR and FcεR.

(1) FeγR

1. The structure and distribution of FeγR FeγR can be divided into three categories: FeγRⅠ, FeγRⅡ and FeγRⅢ. Their structure and distribution are different.

(1) FeγRⅠ (CD64): a 70kD transmembrane glycoprotein, belonging to the Ig superfamily, with three C2 structures in the extracellular region. FeγRⅠ is mainly distributed in monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. IFN-γ can stimulate the neutrophils of monocytes and macrophages to express FeγRⅠ levels increased by 5 to 10 times. G-CSF also promotes this.

(2) FeγRⅡ (CD32), a 40kD transmembrane glycoprotein, belongs to the Ig superfamily. There are two C2 structures in the extracellular region. FeγRⅡ is expressed in blood cells other than red blood cells.

(3) FeγRⅢ (CD16): It is a 50-70kD glycoprotein, belongs to the Ig superfamily, and has two C2 structures. Mainly distributed on the surface of macrophages, NK cells and eosinophils, neutrophils.

2. The function of FeγR The function of FeγR is mainly exerted by myeloid cells and NK cells.

(1) Mononuclear-macrophage cells: FeγRⅠ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ can be introduced into mononuclear fine ADCC to kill tumor and other target cells. This ADCC effect is Mg2 + dependent and requires the participation of adhesion molecules such as LFA-1. IFN-γ can promote FeγRⅠ-mediated killing of monocytes. Monocyte-phagocytic cells may play a role in regulating phagocytosis and clearing immune complexes through FeγRⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ.

(2) Neutrophils: Freshly isolated neutrophils cannot lyse target cells through FeγR, but after IFN-γ stimulation, they can mediate cytotoxicity through FcγRⅠ and FcγRⅡ, which mainly induces increased expression levels of FcγRⅠ. However, there was no change in the expression level of FcγRⅡ, which may be regulated by the killing mechanism. GM-CSF can also significantly enhance the neutrophil killing level through FcγRⅡ. Activated neutrophils play a role in regulating phagocytosis and clearing immune complexes through FcγRⅠ and Ⅱ.

(3) Eosinophils: unstimulated eosinophils have no killing effect, GM-CSF, TNF and IL-5 are effective activators of eosinophils to exert ADCC effect, in anti-parasitic and anti-tumor Has an important role. GM-CSF activation is mainly mediated by FcγRⅡ.

(4) NK cells: FcγRⅢA mediates ADCC to kill tumor cells and other target cells. IL-2 and IFN-γ can significantly increase the killing activity of NK cells, but it does not significantly change the expression level of FcγRⅢ.

Other immune cell membrane molecules (2) FcαR

FcαR (CD89) is a membrane-penetrating glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 60 kD. It belongs to the Ig superfamily. There are two C2 functional regions outside the cell membrane with medium affinity. It is mainly expressed in monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Guide phagocytosis, ADCC and release of inflammatory mediators.

(3) FcεR

The structure and distribution of FcεR FcεR can be divided into two categories: FcεRⅠ and FcεRⅡ. Their structure, distribution, and mediated effects are different.

(1) FcεRI: high affinity receptor, K value 10-9 ~ 10-10M. It is composed of four chains of α, β and γ-γ. FcεRⅠ is mainly distributed in basophils and mast cells.

(2) FcεRII (CD23): low-affinity receptor, molecular weight 45kD, single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein. The 25kD part of the extracellular C-terminal side is also called IgE-binding factor (IgE-BF). FcεRⅡ can form soluble CD23 molecule (Scd23), ie IgE-BF, after proteolytic cleavage.

2. The function of FcεR

(1) FcεRⅠ: basophils and mast cells have high affinity FcεRⅠ. When the corresponding allergen is combined with basophils and mast cell surface lgE / FcεRⅠ complex, the cells are degranulated, synthesized and released more A medium that mediates type I immediate hypersensitivity.

(2) FcεRⅡ: FcεRⅡ is a B cell differentiation activation antigen. In PBMC of patients with allergic diseases, CD23 density increased significantly, and serum sCD23 increased. sCD23 has BCGF activity, promotes B cells to produce IgE, and has a synergistic effect with IL-4. In addition, FcεRⅡ can also mediate IgE-dependent ADCC and phagocytosis.

3. Cytokine receptors

A variety of cytokine receptors are expressed on the surface of immune cells, and the types, density, and affinity of cytokine receptors expressed by different immune cells are different.

1. Cytokine receptors on the surface of T cells A variety of cytokines can regulate the function of T cells, because T cells have corresponding cytokine receptors, such as IL-1R, IL-2R, IL-3R, IL- 4R, IL-6R, IL-7R, IL-8R, IL-9R, IL-12R, TNF-αR, G-CSFR, TGF-βR, etc. The number and affinity of quiescent and activated T cytokine receptors can be very different. For example, quiescent T cells only express the IL-β chain, which binds to IL-2 ligands with medium affinity. When T cells are activated, they also express IL-2Rα Chain and β chain, and constitute a high affinity receptor.

2. Cytokine receptors on the surface of B cells A variety of cytokines regulate the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of B cells by binding to the corresponding cytokine receptors on the surface of B cells to play a regulatory role. The cytokine receptors of B cells mainly include IL-1R, IR-2R, IL-4R, IL-5R, IL-6R, IL-7R, IL-11R, IL-12R, IFN-γR, TNF-α and TGF -βR etc.

3. Cytokine receptors on the surface of mononuclear-macrophages There are various cytokine receptors on the surface of mononuclear-macrophages, such as MCFR, MIFR, MAFR, IFNR, M-CSFR, GM-CSFR, etc., corresponding cells After the action of the factor, it can regulate the phagocytosis function of monocyte-macrophage, cytotoxicity, the expression of MHC class II antigen and the synthesis and release of monocyte factor.

Four, sheep red blood cell receptor

There are receptors on the surface of human T cells that can bind to sheep red blood cells, called E receptors. E receptors can bind to ligands on the surface of sheep red blood cells in vitro under certain conditions, and can form a floral ring on the surface of T cells. For E garland. This method can be used to detect the relative percentage of human peripheral blood T cells and can be used as one of the indicators to judge the immune function of human T cells.

The E receptor has proved to be a glycoprotein molecule with a molecular weight of 30-60 kD. The monoclonal antibody was used to identify the E receptor, which was considered to be a new human T cell differentiation antigen, named leukocyte differentiation antigen 2 (Leu-5, OKT11, CD2). It is currently believed that the E receptor may mediate the Ca2 + -dependent T cell bypass activation pathway.

baby chair

Baby chair series include Baby Dining Chair, Baby Bike Seat , Baby Safety Chair and Baby Dual Stool. Use for baby dining, playing, learning and other suitable places.

Bike seats are our first products from a moulding factory to baby products factory since 2000 year, old but best quality Baby Carrier Seat. If you use bike to carry baby, give baby more safe condition, try to avoid dangerous risk.

Dining chair, is designed seamlessly to adjust to growing baby`s need. Reliable and versatile, use the feeding chair from infant feeder to high chair to booster.

As a baby products manufacturer, we product high quality chairs with competitive prices, pass EN71 & EN14988. Allow trial order with small quantity to test market first, and offer best service as we can.

Baby Chair

Baby Chair,Baby Safety Chair,Baby Safety Seat,Baby Feeding Chair

​Taizhou Howawa Baby Products Co., Ltd. , https://www.howawa.com