The best use of resources criteria: First, in the selection of resources, we should proceed from the concept of sustainable development, consider the regenerative capacity of resources and cross-time allocation problems, use renewable resources as much as possible; the second is to ensure that the design is used as much as possible Resources are used to the fullest extent throughout the product's life cycle.
The minimum energy consumption criteria: First, clean energy and renewable primary energy, such as solar energy and wind energy, should be used as far as possible when selecting energy types. This can effectively alleviate the energy crisis. Second, it strives to design the energy cycle of the entire product life cycle. Minimize consumption and reduce energy waste.
"Zero Pollution" Criterion: Green design should completely abandon the traditional "pollution, post-treatment" end of the way to manage the environment, and to implement the "prevention-based, governance-assisted" environmental protection strategy.
"Zero damage" criteria: That is to ensure that products have good protection functions for workers (producers and users) during the life cycle. In terms of design, we must consider not only the product manufacturing and use environment, but also the quality and reliability of the product. How to ensure the safety of producers and users, but also to make products comply with the principles of ergonomics and aesthetics, so as not to cause harm to people's physical and mental health.
Advanced Technology Guidelines: Green design requires products that are designed to be â€œgreenâ€, require the use of the most advanced technologies, and require designers to be creative so that products have the best market competitiveness.
The best guidelines for ecological and economic benefits: Green design must not only consider the economic benefits created by the product, but also consider the impact of the environmental behavior of the product on the ecological environment and society from the point of view of sustainable development. The loss of environmental and ecological benefits and social benefits.
Customer Satisfaction Criterion: The purpose of production is to meet the needs of users. Products must have a market and have a certain market advantage, meet the requirements of qualified indicators, and strive to obtain satisfactory solutions for enterprises, users, society, and the environment.
Green product design evaluation index system The formulation of product life cycle evaluation index system must follow the scientific and practical, complete and operability, incompatibility and system, qualitative and quantitative indicators, dynamic indicators and static indicators. The principle of unity, its evaluation index consists of the basic attributes of products, environmental attributes, resource attributes, energy attributes, economic attributes and social attributes. Specific indicators are shown in Table 1.
Green product design program evaluation process With the deepening of research, research on green design evaluation methods is also constantly appearing, but these methods are mostly comprehensive evaluation methods, and there is not much research on the evaluation process. This paper proposes a combination of one-time testing and comprehensive evaluation, which can effectively solve a certain level that has a decisive role in the comprehensive evaluation process and results processing of green design, but this method does not have much impact on the evaluation results. problem.
Several major stages of the evaluation process:
One-time inspection stage
User needs analysis: With the growing awareness of the social environment, more and more consumers are more inclined to use green products. Under the influence of this trend, whether it is a general product or a green product, it is ultimately necessary to meet the market demand. Therefore, in the process of conducting one-time inspection, we must first examine whether there is a market and whether it can meet the needs of end consumers.
Government intervention: Governments of different countries will formulate some mandatory standards in accordance with their own laws and regulations and certain specific ecological environment, resource consumption, environmental pollution, and social conditions. The relevant government regulations must be taken into consideration in one-time inspections.
Standards: Formulate international corporate environmental standards. In September 1996, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) introduced the IS014000 series of corporate environmental management standards, which set clear standards and specifications for the company's activities, product and service environmental behaviors, and carried out certification of corporate environmental standards. The companies that obtained the certification will It is an important symbol for a company to have market share and market competitiveness, and it should also take into account relevant standards of the industry.
For each standard of one-time inspection, if any one of the standards is not in compliance, it cannot enter the next-level inspection. However, the one-time inspection standard has different standards according to different countries and different regions, so it should be determined according to different circumstances. In the evaluation process, the corresponding green standard database should be set for different situations in order to ensure the integrity of the one-time inspection.
The comprehensive evaluation stage mainly uses virtual means to analyze the stages of the product life cycle, such as the selection of raw materials, manufacturing stages, use and maintenance phases, recycling phases, and other phases of the entire life cycle, according to the green product design goals and different stages of green design. Principles and priorities, comprehensive evaluation of the feasibility, economy, and greenness of the design plan according to the combination of the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy evaluation method, and the comprehensive evaluation method of the hierarchy analysis can also be selected based on different evaluation objectives. the result of.
The process of selection is based on the output of the evaluation results and the selection of the best evaluation program as the final choice, and the relatively poor results are returned to the design improvement department for improvement. The process of selecting the best is also a complicated process, and some related statistical methods are used, but the ultimate goal is to find a satisfactory design.
According to the goal of the design, find out where the comprehensive evaluation of the design is to be carried out and make corresponding improvements, and then put it into the evaluation process for further inspection and selection. The specific process is shown in Figure 1.
This article outlines the related content of green product design, and adds social satisfaction and customer satisfaction to the green product attributes and design index system. The key lies in systematicizing the index system of green product design. In addition, a combination of one-time testing and comprehensive evaluation is proposed in the evaluation process, which can effectively solve a certain level that has a decisive role in the comprehensive evaluation process and results processing of green design, but has no significant impact on the evaluation results. To avoid the drawbacks of â€œchange after development firstâ€ and â€œenvironmental governance after production firstâ€ due to defects in previous evaluation models and mechanisms. And organically combines summative evaluation with periodic evaluation, diagnostic evaluation and dynamic optimization. However, no specific evaluation methods are given in this paper for further study.
Author: Shenyang University of Technology Management Zhang Qingshan Sun Moon
Source: Business Age
A men`s Olympic barbell is 2.2 meters long (7.2 feet) and weights 20 kilograms; about 44-lbs. The sleeves are 50 mm in diameter, and the shaft is 28 mm in diameter and make up about 1.3 meters of the bar`s total length.
The women`s Olympic barbell is slightly shorter at 2.1 meters long (6.9 feet) and weighs 15 kilograms (roughly 33 pounds). The shaft is also slightly thinner at 25 mm thick (.98 inches). Women`s Olympic bars do not have center knurling.
Olympic bars must also have smooth rotating sleeves. This allows the lifter to get under the bar quickly without having to release their grip. This effortless rotation is often achieved by using expensive needle bearings in the sleeves. Finally, the quality of Olympic bars is such that they have to withstand repeated drops from overhead positions.
Olympic Barbells,Olympic Barbell Weight,Olympic Barbell Set,Olympic Weightlifting Barbell
AZJ (China) Fitness Products Co., Ltd , http://www.fitness-cn.com